The D24V22Fx family of step-down voltage regulators generates lower output voltages from input voltages as high as 36 V. They are synchronous switching regulators (also called switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) or DC-to-DC converters) with typical efficiencies of 85% to 95%, which is much more efficient than linear voltage regulators, especially when the difference between the input and output voltage is large. These regulators can typically support continuous output currents of over 2 A, though the actual available output current is a function of the input voltage and efficiency (see the Typical efficiency and output current section below). In general, the available output current is a little higher for the lower-voltage versions than it is for the higher-voltage versions, and it decreases as the input voltage increases.
These regulators have a typical quiescent (no load) current draw of around 1 mA, and an enable pin can be used to put the boards in a low-power state that reduces the quiescent current to approximately 5 µA to 10 µA per volt on VIN.
The modules have built-in reverse-voltage protection, short-circuit protection, a thermal shutdown feature that helps prevent damage from overheating, and a soft-start feature that reduces inrush current.
Several different fixed output voltages are available:.
The D24V22Fx family is intended to replace our older D24V25Fx family of step-down voltage regulators. The two designs have the same size and similar current capabilities and input voltage ranges, but they do not have the same pinout and are based on different internal circuits, so there are fundamental differences in operation. In particular, these newer D24V22Fx regulators have much lower dropout voltages and provide a “power good” signal, and the newer design allows for higher output voltages (e.g. 12 V).
Size: 0.7″ × 0.7″ × 0.31″1
Weight: 2.3 g1
Minimum operating voltage: 12.7 V2
Maximum operating voltage: 36 V
Continuous output current: 2.2 A3
Output voltage: 12 V
Reverse voltage protection?: Y
Maximum quiescent current: 4 mA4
PCB dev codes: reg19a
Other PCB markings: 0J9251
4 V to 36 V for the version that outputs 3.3 V
[output voltage + dropout voltage] to 36 V for output voltages of 5 V and higher (see below for more information on dropout voltage)
Fixed 12 V output with 4% accuracy
Typical maximum continuous output current: >2 A
Typical efficiency of 85% to 95%, depending on input voltage, output voltage, and load
Switching frequency: ~400 kHz
Integrated reverse-voltage protection, over-current protection, over-temperature shutoff, and soft-start
1 mA typical no-load quiescent current; this can be reduced to approximately 5 µA to 10 µA per volt on VIN by disabling the board
“Power good” output indicates when the regulator cannot adequately maintain the output voltage
Compact size: 0.7″ × 0.7″ × 0.31″ (17.8 mm × 17.8 mm × 8 mm)
Two 0.086″ mounting holes for #2 or M2 screws
Using the Regulator
These buck regulators have five main connection points for five different electrical nodes: power good (PG), enable (EN), input voltage (VIN), ground (GND), and output voltage (VOUT). The board also features a second ground connection point off the main row of connections that might be convenient for applications where you are soldering wires directly to the board rather than using it in a breadboard.
The input voltage, VIN, powers the regulator. Voltages between 4 V and 36 V can be applied to VIN, but for versions of the regulator that have an output voltage higher than 4 V, the effective lower limit of VIN is VOUT pluse the regulator’s dropout voltage, which varies approximately linearly with the load (see below for a graph of dropout voltages as a function of the load).
The output voltage, VOUT, is fixed and depends on the regulator version: the D24V22F3 version outputs 3.3 V, the D24V22F5 version outputs 5 V, the D24V22F6 version outputs 6 V, the D24V22F7 version outputs 7.5 V, the D24V22F9 version outputs 9 V, and the D24V22F12 version outputs 12 V.
The regulator is enabled by default: a 270 kΩ pull-up resistor on the board connects the EN pin to reverse-protected VIN. The EN pin can be driven low (under 1 V) to put the board into a low-power state. The quiescent current draw in this sleep mode is dominated by the current in the pull-up resistor from EN to VIN and by the reverse-voltage protection circuit, which altogether will draw between 5 µA and 10 µA per volt on VIN when EN is held low. If you do not need this feature, you should leave the EN pin disconnected.
The “power good” indicator, PG, is an open-drain output that goes low when the regulator’s output voltage falls below around 85% of the nominal voltage and becomes high-impedance when the output voltage rises above around 90%. An external pull-up resistor is required to use this pin.
The board has two 0.086″ (2.18 mm) diameter mounting holes intended for #2 or M2 screws. The mounting holes are at opposite corners of the board and are separated by 0.52″ (13.21 mm) both horizontally and vertically.
Typical Efficiency and Output Current
The efficiency of a voltage regulator, defined as (Power out)/(Power in), is an important measure of its performance, especially when battery life or heat are concerns. This family of switching regulators typically has an efficiency of 85% to 95%, though the actual efficiency in a given system depends on input voltage, output voltage, and output current. See the efficiency graph near the bottom of this page for more information.
The maximum achievable output current is typically over 2 A, but this depends on many factors, including the ambient temperature, air flow, heat sinking, and the input and output voltage.
Typical dropout voltage
The dropout voltage of a step-down regulator is the minimum amount by which the input voltage must exceed the regulator’s target output voltage in order to ensure the target output can be achieved. For example, if a 5 V regulator has a 1 V dropout voltage, the input must be at least 6 V to ensure the output is the full 5 V. Generally speaking, the dropout voltage increases as the output current increases. See the “Details” section below for more information on the dropout voltage for this specific regulator version.
LC Voltage Spikes
When connecting voltage to electronic circuits, the initial rush of current can cause voltage spikes that are much higher than the input voltage. If these spikes exceed the regulator’s maximum voltage (36 V), the regulator can be destroyed. In our tests with typical power leads (~30″ test clips), input voltages above 20 V caused spikes over 36 V.
If you are connecting more than 20 V or your power leads or supply has high inductance, we recommend soldering a 33 μF or larger electrolytic capacitor close to the regulator between VIN and GND. The capacitor should be rated for at least 50 V.